MODERN EUROPEAN ANTI-SEMITISM: MAIN FEATURES AND THREATS

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Dr Oleg Kozerod

Kuras Institute of Political and Ethnic Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Senior Research Fellow, Doctor of Historical Sciences

Anti-Semitism has become one of the most crucial challenges for the Jewish community in Europe over the last few years. Law enforcement agencies in most European countries employ increasing measures to provide security for Jewish communities, yet the number of incidents is mounting.
Issues of the modern European Anti-Semitism and its impact on the life of the Jewish community in Europe are extensively studied by followers of various European schools of thought, in particular, by Jeffrey Herf [1], Stuart E. Eizenstat [2], Esther Webman [3], et cetera. Researchers focus on studying of key anti-Semitic myths that prevail in the modern Western social thinking, and their effect upon the state of interethnic relations.
The aim of this paper is to explore the most pressing issues related to Anti-Semitism in Europe, based on European news media and the anslysis of some works from Western historiography.
Political events in the Middle East generate more emotions than ever among European opponents of the State of Israel, still judicial systems in many countries, e.g. in France, continue combatting Anti-Semitism in a consistent manner and without fear or favour. E.g., at the beginning of November, 2014, clothes designer John Galliano lost his case against the Dior Fashion House in a Paris court. He had asked for damages of €10 million for his dismissal from Dior where he worked as a creative director. The designer was sacked from his job in December 2010 after a vicious verbal attack on women in a Paris bar saying them that “all Jews must be gassed”. In his complaint to the Paris labour court, Galliano stated that his former employee had multiplied its sales due to his contribution during 17 years at Dior, and that his dismissal broke down his physical and mental health.
The court threw out his claim and ordered Galliano to pay the Fashion House a symbolic €1 fine. Galliano is now the creative director of Maison Margiela. His antisemitic rant in 2010 received a wide press coverage and was condemned by many in the fashion industry [4].
Unfortunately, anti-Semitism is still a pressing challenge even for some traditionally antisemitism-free European countries, i.g. Great Britain, where the youth sometimes shows bias and persistence in this regard. In particular, a witch hunt for European well-known politicians has been brewing lately. Up-and-coming British young politician Luciana Clare Berger increasingly comes under attack by racists and anti-Semites. Ten Neo-Nazis were apprehended near her Liverpool office at the end of last year. The group members were arrested on the date when Garron Helm emerged from jail locked up for sending an antisemitic tweet to Berger.
The neo-Nazis, said news reporters, planned to mount a campaign against her in support of 21-year-old Helm who had purpotedly posted the message in social media: “be sure that my sentence was the beginning of our struggle… for the freedom of British people”. Social media users made suggestions of what those people had really planned. Some of them said the attackers just wanted to “pick Helm up after his release” or “start a small riot”. Merseyside police press secretary said they were conducting an investigation into the actions of the ten suspected [5]. The Jewish community and experts express concern about the trend that some criminals return to their antisemitic actions even after releasing from jail.
The situation with racism and anti-Semitism in Europe caused disputes among leading politicians. A noted Labour Party (UK) member Lord Parry Mitchell tried to advocate the Israeli position in today’s Middle East crisis at the House of Lords debate at the end of 2014. During the discussion, Baroness Tonge, from the Liberal Democratic Party, named the MPs who stood out for Israel the “dangerous pro-Israel lobby”. Lord Mitchell replied: «Around the world, atrocities are being committed and we all wring our hands and do precious little, but when Israel alone defends herself, everybody goes ballistic. At best it can be called hypocrisy, and at worst it is called something else”.
He said he agreed with Maureen Lipman’s criticisms of his own party and its leader Ed Miliband on his supporting the recognition of Palestine. “When we see demonstrations in the streets of London which are pro-Hamas with a nasty element of antisemitism thrown in; when I see my good friend the MP Luciana Berger receive death threats from antisemitic Twitter trolls for her position on Israel, I understand where all this can lead… I ask this question: if the demonstrators are so concerned about countries that commit crimes against humanity, why do they not demonstrate against countries which make no secret of their barbarism?” [6].
The House of Lords debate was to have been devoted to formulating a position of Great Britain on the situation across the Middle East, but Members of Parliament chiefly spoke about Palestine and Israel. Baroness Deech even urged people of Muslim countries to do more to build a movement for peace and work to resolve the problems of the Middle East. “Where is their Gandhi? Where is their Mandela? We are talking today about the failure of the nation state in Islam, and the failure in the region to overcome the demonisation of others[6] ,” the Baroness said.
It stands to mention that the phenomenon of the anti-Semitism draws more and more attention of government agencies that must safeguard the peace of and provide security for national communities. At the end of 2014, the government of Scotland decided to support studies on anti-Semitism and allocated a £10,000 grant in November last year. The grant was bestowed upon the Scottish Council of Jewish Communities (SCoJeC) in response of a sharp increase in antisemitic manifestations in Scotland. The spike of anti-Semitism in Scotland is generally blamed on the escalation in the Middle East, since over 50 antisemitic incidents were reported just for the three summer months 2014, which is more than it had been for the past three years.
The situation caused a great disappointment with the community members who had to apply to SCJC for protection from persecutions more often than ever. Some said they had to conceal their Jewish identity, and others thought of leaving Scotland. “I fully realize the valuable contribution made by the Jewish community to the economy and social life of Scotland, and I am happy to support more efforts for the benefit of the Jewish community” [7], underlined Minister for Community Safety and Legal Affairs Roseanna Cunningham.
The situation around Anti-Semitism in summer 2014 became the greatest challenge for the Jewish community in Europe for the last few years. In July 2014, over 100 hate crimes were registered by experts at the Community Security Trust (UK) that was established to ensure protection of Jewish communities all over Great Britain. This is about twice as much from July 2013. It was the second-largest outburst of anti-Semitism for the whole history of its observations in Great Britain, after 2009 events in the Gaza Strip.
Throughout July 2014, thousands of Palestinians rallied in front of the British Parliament against the military operation conducted by the Israeli government. And all the country got flooded by antisemitic acts. The Muslim teenager’s assault on a rabbi in Gateshead was the gravest incident. Someone broke windows with a brick at Belfast’s only synagogue for two consecutive nights. A group of Palestinians cried out “Heil Hitler!” during an antisemitic motor rally on Manchester streets. In Northern London, someone called up to a pro-Israeli organization and reported on a planted bomb, and a nijabi-wearing woman threw a stone on a Jewish boy who was riding a bike. A CST spokesman Mark Gardner stated: “the incidents at least doubled, but the things are not so bad as in France. People realize the danger and everyone is warned about it. Nobody is panicking, and the life is going on as it should be” [8].
Pursiant to the latest statystical survey published by the Community Security Trust, the number of antisemitic incidents went up by 36 percent for the first six months 2014. As much as 304 cases of antisemitic manifestations were logged since January through June.
Following February 2009 when the Gaza Strip conflict was in a full swing, July 2014 was a record-breaking month in Great Britain by the level of anti-Semitism. Press secretary at CST Mark Gardner said: “nothing can extenuate this wave of racist intimidation and violence, so we urge all good people to condemn it” [9].
The number of anti-Semitic incidents registered in London went up to 144 this year, from 94 in the first half-year 2013 (up 54 percent). In Manchester, there was a 16-percent growth (95 incidents, from 83). 42 incidents were recorded in Solford, 10 – in Leeds, 7 – in Liverpool, and 4 – in Bradford [9].
European experts and politicians forecast the trend of anti-Semitism growth will persist. The issue was brought up at the House of Lords by Lord Jonathan Sacks, former Britain’s chief Orthodox rabbi and a leader of the British Jewish community. He drew attention of Members of Parliament to the increase in anti-Semitism in continental Europe where the situation is much more serious than in Great Britain. “In the past few weeks mobs have assaulted Jews in France, attacking synagogues and setting fire to Jewish-owned shops… I did not expect, 120 years after the Dreyfus case and 70 years after the Holocaust, that the cry of “Death to the Jews” would be heard again in the streets of France and Germany,” Lord Sacks said [9].
We should note that governments and people in some Europen countries, particularly, in Great Britain, have given a hard response to antisemitic actions that took place both in cities and on the Internet, for the last few months.
Real estate broker Richard Ladd was fired from an Edinburgh company in July 2014, over his antisemitic tweets. Working as a property sales and marketing consultant at McEwan Fraser Legal, Richard Ledd posted a string of remarks following a row between footballers Joey Barton and Yossi Benayoun over the Israeli military operation in the Gaza Strip. One of his comments in Twitter read as follows: “ugly Jewish c***… If only Hitler was still around to sort you out.” [10].
When Twitter users noticed his tweets, they alerted Richard’s employers at Edinburgh-based McEwan Fraser office to the incident. The company top-managers horrified by these remarks, said they had dismissed Richard at once. Neil Morgan, director at the estate agent said: “No right-thinking person would ever condone this vile, abhorrent language and, as a firm committed to equal opportunities and respect for all regardless of race, colour, religion or gender, we condemn any form of intolerant or discriminatory behaviour.” Local government of Edinburgh responded to that incident quickly as well. Foysol Choudhury, chairman of the Edinburgh & Lothians Regional Equality Council, underlined: “Any form of anti-Semitic hatred, expressed in different forms should not and cannot be tolerated… In the advent of any form of faith-based hate incident or hate crime, we also would want to encourage people to report it to the police” [10].
It is worth noting that the Middle East escalation and the ground campaign conducted by the Israeli armed forced in summer 2014 resulted in a sharp increase in intensity and level of antisemitic and anti-Israel rhetorics in Europe. The powerful Islamic lobby in some countries of the European Union gives an increasingly hard-hitting response to events in the Middle East due to the growth in the number of Islamic nonprofit organizations, politicians, public figures and European MPs who represent the Islamic community or sympathize with it. The latest events when Islamic extremists and pro-Islamic forces attempted to retaliate for the Israeli land operation in the Gaza Strip to European Jewish community members who were not citizens of Israel, but, as the extremists thought, had to bear responsibility for all actions of that country. This led to a sharp increase in race and hate crimes in 2014-2015 in Europe. Regardless of severe legislation and inevitable punishment, anti-Semitism and race hatred persist in the countries of the developed Western European democracy. Governments and law-enforcement agencies will have to improve the safeguarding system to protect public and religious facilities located in Europe to prevent future acts of terror and assaults on members of the European community.
It goes without saying that it is still hard to resolve the Anti-Semitism problen in Europe considering the escalation in the Middle East and the propagation of ideas of extremism and terrorism in Europe. But if the European countries declaring commitment to combat this phenomena join their efforts, they have a chance to slow down the growth of anti-Semitism considerably. This objective can be achieved by establishing a universal European body, for example, the Agency for Combatting Anti-Semitism that would have a common data base for registering all antisemitic events in all regions of the European Union, and by forging close connections between companies and security agencies that deal with monitoring of anti-Semitism and protect Jewish communities, religious structures and educational institutions.

NEW TRENDS IN EUROPEAN ANTI-SEMITISM

Anti-Semitism has become one of the most crucial challenges for the Jewish community in Europe over the last few years. Law enforcement agencies in most European countries employ increasing measures to provide security for Jewish communities, yet the number of antisemitic incidents is mounting. Key features of the European anti-Semitism are also challenging for Eastern Enropean countries, especially ones that have joined the Eastern Partnership programme and are preparing for accession to the European Union.
The occurrence of anti-Semitism is condemned by most European governments, however some antisemitic figures and associations have boosted their activities in some parts of Europe in 2015. A May 2015 meeting at Grosvenor Hotel was called “Nazi invasion of London” in British media. It was a significant gathering of Nazi sympathizers, anti-Semites, Holocaust deniers and their supporters from Spain, Canada, the US and other countries [4]. Some speakers unleashed anti-Semitic rants, referring to Jews as ‘the enemy’ and ‘children of darkness’. The Nazi sympathizers laughed at Charlie Hebdo massacre and discussed “why the Jews have all the gold in the world”. The vile event was observed and exposed by a Mail on Sunday undercover agent.
The meeting was, said experts, the most significant gathering of Holocaust deniers Great Britain has ever seen. The agent said they had sniggered at the mention of “ashes rising from the death camps’ crematoria” and applauded as they were urged to “identify, counter and break Jewish-Zionist domination” [5].
The star speaker at the event was Spanish Nazi Pedro Varela, 57, who adores Adolf Hitler and denies Holocaust for many years, though earlier sentenced and jailed for his antisemitic acts. He was arrested in Austria for praising Hitler in 1992 and he declared: “There were never any gas chambers in Auschwitz.” Also present was a leading peddler of Holocaust denial and ‘revisionist’ theories, Mark Weber, 63, of California. Great Britain was represented by ex-BNP organiser Richard Edmonds, ex-newspaper editor for the BNP John Morse, National Front activist John Moris, retired teacher Michael Woodbridge, 69, who sympathizes a Fascists leader Oswald Mosley, and others. Many British attendees had been jailed for racism. The meeting gathered 113 participants [6]. Gerry Gable, publisher of anti-Fascist Searchlight magazine said: “This is the biggest and most significant meeting of Holocaust deniers that Britain has ever seen. It is a very worrying development” [7].
Most experts believe that a great challenge is that the ideas of anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial can be easily distributed via the Internet, social media and hacker attacks. Realizing the threats, British government announced in June this year it will allocate £1.2 million for developing measures aimed at enhancing of cyber security in Great Britain. The project will involve two teams from Britain and Israel. The first partnership is Bar Ilan University (Ramat Gan), researchers from University of Bristol and University College London. The second joint partnership is the University of Kent and the Israeli Ministry of Science, Space and Technology [8]. The projects will see the academics work together on several specific areas of research. These include: cryptography, privacy assurance and identity management. Minister for Cabinet Office with responsibility for Cyber Security have visited Israel several times for a couple of years to coordinate a joint research of the two countries.
Today, Great Britain, Israel, New Zealand, South Korea and Estonia make up the top five countries by digital technologies, which enable to predict a great future to such cooperation programmes. The Minister also announced a new project focused on enhancing security in the Britush cyber space and based on the Israeli Talpiot scheme [9].
Joining efforts of British and French Jewish communities, which are most numerous and influential in Europe, is essential for all modern Jewish communities. Baron David de Rothschild spoke June at a United Jewish Israel Appeal (UJIA) event in London warning about the threat of terrorism and spread of hate messages on the Internet. His speech was one of the most important events for the two Jewish communities. Speaking to a 280-strong audience at the UJIA charity breakfast, the banker and senior figure in the French Jewish community warned about the rise of people engaging in terrorist activities in Western countries.
“It is horrendous,” he said. “Terrorist threat is at the forefront of many countries and homegrown terrorism increases the risk to Jewish communities everywhere.” He added: “There are downsides to the Internet. Some websites are dangerous for us.” Worldwide renowned businessman, Baron de Rothschild said that an increasing number of French Jews had moved to Israel as a result of a steep rise in anti-Semitism. “People are suffering in the suburbs. Mothers do not want to send their sons to school wearing a kippah… There is army or police in the front of Jewish schools and at every Jewish site in France,” he said. Head of the Rothschild Group said he also wanted to witness peace in the Middle East before he dies [10].
Antisemitic organizations plan to run a large number of campaigns this year to disseminate the ideas of hatred to Jews. Right-wing activists and Neo-Nazis plan to hold a march against “Jewfication” of Golders Green district (London) on July 4, and it will be a great gathering of anti-Semites and their admirers. The district in the north London neighbourhood is inhabited by the mostly Orthodox Jewish community for many years. Leaders of the New Dawn Party who organized the July 4 protest, chose Saturday, or the Jewish Sabbath, intentionally, since the Shomrim and police authorities would not be patrolling the streets on that day. A member of the Community Protection Foundation that deals with the protection of Jewish facilities all across Great Britain said he would be able to safeguard the community. The New Dawn far-right leader Joshua Bonehill-Paine urged to ‘liberate the district from the occupation force of approximately 50,000 Jews’. Bonehill encouraged supporters to oppose the work of the Shomrim volunteer security group, claiming it enforced ‘evil Talmudic Jewish Law’ [11].
Regardless of severe legislation and inevitable punishment, anti-Semitism and race hatred gain momentum in the countries of the developed Western European democracy. Governments and law-enforcement agencies will have to improve the safeguarding system to protect public and religious facilities located in Europe to prevent future acts of terror and assaults on members of the European community.
It goes without saying that it is still hard to resolve the Anti-Semitism problem in Europe considering the escalation in the Middle East and the propagation of ideas of extremism and terrorism in Europe. But if the European countries declaring commitment to combat this phenomenon join their efforts, they have a chance to slow down the growth of anti-Semitism considerably.

MODERN EUROPEAN PRACTICES IN COMBATTING ANTI-SEMITISM: KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

Escalation in the Middle East region and spread of Radical Islamic ideas across Europe have led to an outburst of antisemitic rhetorics in Europe. Every year extremist ideas are increasingly shared by members of Islamic public organizations, politicians and clergymen. All of this lead to tragic events, for example, latest acts of terrorism in France, where Islamic extremists attempted to retaliate to the Jewish minority in Paris and organised the bloody massacre.
Unfortunately, most members of Islamist groups consider the European Jewish community to be responsible for Israeli politics in the Middle East and assault people who are not citizens of Israel and do not obligatory share the political agenda of government. The bodies of state power in Great Britain and beyond fight anti-Semitism, yet it is often manifested in various areas of society, particularly, in sports. The European community was indignant with a scandal around Dave Whelan, chairman of Wigan Athletic FC. In December 2014, he was banned by the Football Association of Great Britain for six weeks from all football activity and fined £50,000 after making inappropriate comments about Jewish and Chinese people. Whelan had told in his interview that “Jewish people do chase money more than everybody else”. The Football Association (FA) reported as follows: “Mr Whelan breached FA rule E3[1] in that comments made to the media were abusive… This was an ‘aggravated breach’ as defined by FA rule E3[2] as it included a reference to ethnic origin and/or race and/or nationality and/or religion or belief [4].
Whelan previously said he would resign from his role at Wigan if the FA even suggested he was guilty of being racist. He is known in Great Britain as a football club top executive, a former professional footballer for Blackburn Rovers and a politician. He donated to the Conservative Party £1.5 million in 2007 and £100,000 in 2014. Whelan called for a mandatory minute’s silence at all football games to mark the death of ex-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher, but the Football Association rejected the proposal.
One of the greatest threats for Jewish communities in Europe is a political anti-Semitism. Unfortunately, combatting this phenomenon is a hard challenge even for influential politicians, Cabinet ministers and MPs. Luciana Berger, the Member of Parliament for Liverpool, urged top managers at Twitter Inc. that operates the Twitter social network to deal with the issue of racist tweets often addressed to her by other users.
She said that Twitter and other social websites should automatically block the words related to racism and xenophobia. The MP underlined that online hate needs to be taken as seriously as offline hate. Berger had to contact the Twitter’s UK head in connection with an abusive campaign targeted against her which is allegedly orchestrated by a US-based Neo-Nazi website. At the height of the abuse, she was the subject of 2,500 hate messages in the space of three days. “Twitter’s response isn’t good enough. It has a responsibility to do more to protect its users… It could start by automatically banning racist words” [5], said Berger. “Even when Twitter removed some of the abusive content, the approach was sporadic and very haphazard” [6], she added. Yet Twitter Inc. refrains from comments in this regard.
Unfortunately, a political anti-Semitism in Europe is closely tied with anti-Israel messages spoken up by some well-known politicians. David Cameron, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, sharply criticized the Leader of the Opposition Ed Miliband for his active contribution to a notorious voting in the House of Commons in support of the recgnition of Palestine as a state. Cameron has reasserted his support for Israel and said that his party would always stand behind “the homeland of the Jewish people” as he addressed more than 700 people at a Westminster lunch close to Christmas. The Prime Minister described Israel as an “oasis of freedom” and the “symbol of success”.
Cameron condemned a resolution of Labour Party leadership to allow a free vote to Labour MPs on issues concerning the recognition of Palestine which let the pro-Palestinian lobby off the leash. The Prime Minister underlined his opposition to boycotts of Israel: “We in this party oppose boycotts because… delegitimizing the State of Israel is wrong, it is abhorrent – and together we will defeat it [7].” The event was attended by over ten Cabinet Ministers for the Conservative Party, hundreds of Mambers of Parliament for the Conservative Party, party old-timers, community leaders and key sponsors to the Conservatives.
Countering anti-Semitism is an essential social challenge faced today by the European community. This phenomenon gains momentum due to a cohesion in Islamist groups and activity of websites and social media users who promote racism, anti-Semitism and xenophobia. In this situation, solidarity of European governments and public organizations is vital for localizing and combatting this phenomenon. Eastern European countries that existed under the government-backed anti-Semitism for many years and that have great traditions of interethnic peace and tolerance in local communities and social conscience can contribute to the process.

ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE POLITICAL ESTABLISHMENT

Anti-Semitism acquired vogue among the political establishment of Great Britain in the 20th centiry mainly due to the dissemination of ideas of such philosophers of history as Arnold J. Toynbee, whose ideas were very popular with the British middle class since 60-70’s last century. Toynbee studied at Balliol College, Oxford, and became a tutor and fellow there. He became professor at the London School of Economics and worked as director of studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) since 1929 to 1955, an influential institution in UK politics. In his works, the scientist analyzed historic events and epochs and came to anti-Zionist conclusions. He stated that Jews were worse than Nazis, since the formers persecuted Palestinians and expeled them from Israel. Arnold Toynbee (1889–1975) was a prominent and influential figure in the British establishment and in fact brought antisemitic attitudes into vogue that sometimes were camouflaged as anti-Zionism. In 1970’s there formed a group of people among British politicians and scientists who equalized Zionism with apartheid and conducted an anti-Jewish outreach campaign in media and universities.
Among other promoters of antisemitic ideas in the British establishment for many years were Trotskyists. After the collapse of the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1990’s, they saw a chance of being in the forefront of the revolution and began promoting the ideas of the “domination of global capitalism, American imperialism and Zionism”. These ideas penetrated into the Labour Party and trade unions gaining a great support at the time preceding Tony Blair’s being in power [4]. Unfortunately, some left wing politicians soaked up these ideas and embrace the ideology even today.
George Galloway, Member of Parliament since 1987, has been showing his militant anti-Semitism on the political stage for some dozen years. He often participated in pro-Palestinian campaigns, supported Saddam Hussein’s rule, etc. The politician believes that the British have depleted their revolutionary potential, so it should be sought among Muslim migrants who can “replace the proletariat and revive the power of international socialist movement”.
Unfortunately, antisemitic elements are voiced today by some big-name and popular British politicians. Mayor of London Ken Livingstone known for his controversial comments over members of various religious confessions made just another statement of this kind in May this year, during a BBC Newsnight interview. The Mayor said the Jewish people had switched from Labour to Conservative as they got richer over the past half century. Ex-Labour MP Ken Livingstone stated as follows: “People vote according to their income… If we were talking 50 years ago, the Roman Catholic community, the Irish community in Britain, the Jewish community was solidly Labour. Still the Irish Catholic community is pretty still solidly Labour because it is not terribly rich… As the Jewish community got richer, it moved over to voting for Mrs Thatcher as they did in Finchley.” [5, 7] The comments were dismissed by Adrian Cohen, chairman of the London Jewish forum: “Many Jews are not rich, indeed many struggle to make ends meet. In any event there are many factors which influence how a person chooses to vote and one shouldn’t refer to Jewish Londoners as if they were homogeneous.” [6]
A statement made by Prime Minister David Cameron as for chanting the word “yid” at stadiums came as a great surprise for many in Great Britain. In September 2013, the Football Association of Great Britain and UK Jewish organizations perceived the comments by Prime Minister David Cameron as an unfriendly demarche. He said that fans who chant the word “yid” at British stadiums should not be prosecuted. The politician’s statement came after the Football Association had settled the problem by warning fans for all clubs, including Tottenham Hotspur, against using this word.
The FA issued a special guidance developed by experts in anti-Semitism, race and religious hatred, and underlined that any fan chanting the word “yid” on the terraces could face criminal charges. The FA guidance was backed by the Board of Deputies of British Jews and the Community Security Trust that struggles anti-Semitism and racially and religiously motivated attacks in Great Britain. The FA response stemmed from a number of incidents and sickening comments by fans, including the situation when West Ham supporters at a game with Tottenham Hotspur made hissing noises meant to imitate the sound of concentration camp gas chambers. David Cameron again added fuel to the fire by saying that fans should not be prosecuted for using the word “yid” unless they are really motivated by religious or racial hate [7,5]. Public and political discussions are keeping on in this regard.
In Great Britain, the issue of anti-Semitism is not so acute as it is in other countries. Pursuant to a recent survey, which results were published in May 2014, antisemitic views are shared by just 8 percent of the British [8,5]. Nevertheless, the issue of anti-Semitism in the British establishment is under way and it should be taken into consideration when analyzing current political processes in the country, particularly the processes related to Great Britain/EU relations and national and external policies, especially its stance on the Middle East.

EMIGRATION SENTIMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON JEWISH COMMUNITY IN EUROPE AT THE PRESENT STAGE

Anti-Semitism and threat of terrorism have become one of the most crucial challenges for the Jewish community in Europe over the last few years. Law enforcement agencies in most European countries employ increasing measures to provide security for Jewish communities, yet the number of incidents is mounting. The act of terrorism committed on January 9, 2015 in Paris set a tragic benchmark for the history of the European Jewish community. A terrorist took hostages in a kosher supermarket and killed four people. The terrifying attack shocked the European Union and led to extensive public discussions involving well-known European politicians as for the future of the Jewish community in Europe. During the discussion some leaders and members of global Jewish organizations urged the European Jews to leave for the State of Israel, the United States, Canada and other countries [1].
The problem of emigration sentiment among members of the Jewish community and its impact on the development of the Jewish community is a subject of extensive research by scientists, such as Jeffrey Herf [2], Stuart Eizenstat [3], Hasia Diner [4], etc. To prevent antisemitic and terrorist manifestations, some researchers insist on the importance of running of comprehensive educational and informational campaigns, particularly, for the youth, and of developing an efficient plan of measures focused on enhancing of social/ethnic tolerance.
After the January acts of terror in France, politicians and community leaders in Great Britain were the most ardent participants in the discussions on whether the Jews should emigrate from Europe. At mid-January 2015, Home Secretary of the United Kingdom Theresa May made the remarks on the discussion on whether the British Jews should look for the other place to live in. She said that “without its Jews, Britain would not be Britain” [5]. The Home Secretary added that she never thought she would see the day when members of the Jewish community in the United Kingdom would say they were fearful of remaining in the United Kingdom. Theresa May reassured that the Home Office would redouble efforts to prevent terrorist acts like those that had taken place in a kosher grocery store in Paris.
It appears that the rise in Islamic threat targeted on the Jewish community in Europe makes many British Jews were commited to emigrate. “We’re leaving Britain – Jews aren’t safe here any more,” said the Gould family of Manchester that has taken the radical decision to emigrate to America for good. Simon and Honey Gould, with two children, live a seemingly peaceful life in their handsome five-bedroom house in a quiet Manchester suburb of Crumpsall.
Simon, 52, is a successful businessman running his own property company. Honey, 49, has pursued a career in marketing, while also raising son Arron and daughter Angel who study at college. They got used to living in Manchester, but they would have to leave because of the rising number of attacks on Jews. Besides, Islamists announced that Great Britain was a more desirable target for terrorist acts than France and other European countries. The family is packing things, ready for transit to the US state of Arizona, where they would feel safe [7].
Many British Jews, including famous persons like the actress Maureen Lipman, revealed that they were considering leaving the UK. Honey says: “I know there are plenty of people who simply want to live a peaceful coexistence. But there is so much antiSemitism in Britain, and it’s coming from all sides. Our local Jewish schools look like prison camps. They’re surrounded by wire fences. There are guards on patrol, some with dogs. On Saturdays, you see police walking the street with members of the CST. I don’t want to sit at home panicking when my husband goes to the synagogue. I just want to live in peace.” [8] “In America you get every kind of American: African-American, Chinese-American. We’ll be British-American. I’m taking my patriotism with me”, said Simon [9].
There are many Jewish families like this in Europe. The Jewish Agency reported that the Jewish migration from Europe in 2014 showed a record-breaking 32 precent increase over the last years. Members of the 650,000-strong French Jewish diaspora, the world’s second largest diaspora after the US, were the first by quantity who emigrated (7000 Jews), more than double who moved in 2013 [10].
According to the February 2015 findings of the Pew Research Center (the United States), the number of European Jews has continued to decline for several decades since the end of the Holocaust. Now, there are about 1.4 million Jews in Europe – just 10% of the world’s Jewish population. Starting from 1960’s, that number has dropped significantly – most dramatically in Eastern Europe and the countries that make up the former Soviet Union. In 1939, 57% of Jews worldwide lived in Europe, according to statistics. By the end of World War II, the Jewish population of Europe had shrunk to 37% of the world’s Jews. After 1960’s, the European Jewish population declined by over 50 percent, according to recent estimates [11]. Pew Research Centre is an independent Washington-based research company focused on public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research.
Strong emigration sentiment formed among European Jews for the lat few years came as a great surprise for the European community and European governments as it was a new and unexplored phenomenon. The Islamist terrorist movement gaining momentum in EU countries is a big threat for the European Jews. Islamists plan and conduct acts of terror aimed at liquidation of Jews only for their being Jews. This leads to emigration ambitions among common and distinguished Jews involved in cultural, political and business lives of Europe. It goes without saying that an emigration sentiment among the European Jewish community can be overcome by governments of the European countries that should be supported by a wide public in their struggle against anti-Semitism and terrorism.

References

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3. The Challenge of Assessing Arab/Islamic Antisemitism by Esther Webman// Middle Eastern Studies.- 2010.- Vol. 46, Issue 5.- P.677-697.
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7. Grant dlya izucheniya antisemitizma // Agenstvo evreyskih novostey.-23 listopada 2014.
8. Antisemitizm v Velikobritanii v iyule vyiros v dva raza, no ne dostig urovnya 2009 goda // Gazeta “Dostizheniya».- 28 lipnya 2014.- S.5.
9. Situatsiya s antisemitizmom v Velikobritanii i Evrope prodolzhaet uhudshatsya // Gazeta “Dostizheniya».- 1 serpnya 2014.- S.3.
10. Agent po nedvizhimosti iz Edinburga byil uvolen za antisemitskie tvityi // Gazeta “Dostizheniya».- 30 lipnya 2014.- S.3.

* * *
1. Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective: Convergence and Divergence by Jeffrey Herf. – Oxford: Routledge, 2006.- 296 pp.
2. The Future of the Jews: How Global Forces and Impacting the Jewish People, Israel and its Relationship with the United States by Stuart E. Eizenstat.- Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012.- 376 pp.
3. The Challenge of Assessing Arab/Islamic Antisemitism by Esther Webman// Middle Eastern Studies.- 2010.- Vol. 46, Issue 5.- P.677-697.
4. Samaya mnogochislennaya vstrecha natsistov i otritsateley Kholokosta za vsyu istoriyu Velikobritanii sostoyalas’ v Londone // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 19 kvítnya 2015 – S.5 .
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.
8. Izrail’skiye i britanskiye uchenyye stanut v avangarde bor’by s mirovym kiber – terrorom // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 25 bereznya 2015 – S.5 .
9. Tam samo .
10. Baron Rotshil’d ob ugroze terrorizma // Agenstvo yevreyskikh novostey.- 26 kvítnya +2015 .
11. Antisemitskiy miting // Agenstvo yevreyskikh novostey.- 20 travnya +2015 .

* * *

1. Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England by Anthony Julius.- Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.- 912 pp.
2. Sicher, Efraim “The Image of Israel and Postcolonial Discourse in the Early 21st Century: A View from Britain”// Israel Studies. – 2011. – 16:1.
3. The Future of the Jews: How Global Forces and Impacting the Jewish People, Israel and its Relationship with the United States by Stuart E. Eizenstat.- Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012.- 376 pp.
4. Rassuzhdavshiy o ” lyubyashchikh den’gi yevreyakh ” vladelets futbol’nogo kluba oshtrafovan na 50 tysyach funtov // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 1 síchnya 2015 – S.3 .
5. Lusiana Berger prizvala Tvitter nachat’ borot’sya s rasizmom // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 19 grudnya 2014 – S.2 .
6. Ibid.
7. Devid Kemeron podcherknul , chto konservativnaya partiya vsegda budet na storone Gosudarstva Izrail’ // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 16 grudnya 2014 – S.11 .

* * *
1. Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England by Anthony Julius.- Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.- 912 pp.

2. Sicher, Efraim “The Image of Israel and Postcolonial Discourse in the Early 21st Century: A View from Britain”// Israel Studies.-2011.- 16:1.

3.Britain’s Anti-Semitism Turn by Melanie Phillips// City Journal.- 2007.- 7 November.-P.104.

4. Antisemitism Embedded in British Culture by Robert S. Wistrich// Jerusalem Centre for Public Affairs.- 2008.- № 70.- 11 June.

5. Mer Londona propagandiruyet mif o « bogatykh yevreyakh » // Dostizheniya newspaper.- 2013.- 11 travnya 2014.
6. Ibid.

7. Devidu Kemeronu nravitsya , kogda yevreyev nazyvayut « zhidami » ? // Dostizheniya newspaper.- 2013.- 17 veresnya .

8. Lish’ vosem’ protsentov britantsev yavlyayutsya antisemitami // Dostizheniya newspaper.- 2014.- 14 travnya .

* * *
1. Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England by Anthony Julius.- Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.- 912 pp.
2. Sicher, Efraim “The Image of Israel and Postcolonial Discourse in the Early 21st Century: A View from Britain”// Israel Studies. – 2011. – 16:1.
3. The Future of the Jews: How Global Forces and Impacting the Jewish People, Israel and its Relationship with the United States by Stuart E. Eizenstat.- Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012.- 376 pp.
4. Rassuzhdavshiy o ” lyubyashchikh den’gi yevreyakh ” vladelets futbol’nogo kluba oshtrafovan na 50 tysyach funtov // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 1 síchnya 2015 – S.3 .
5. Lusiana Berger prizvala Tvitter nachat’ borot’sya s rasizmom // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 19 grudnya 2014 – S.2 .
6. Ibid.
7. Devid Kemeron podcherknul , chto konservativnaya partiya vsegda budet na storone Gosudarstva Izrail’ // Gazeta ” Dostizheniya » .- 16 grudnya 2014 – S.11 .

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